Diuretics, also called water pills, are medications designed to increase the amount of water and salt expelled from the body as urine. There are three types of prescription diuretics. They’re often prescribed to help treat high blood pressure, but they’re used for other conditions as well.The most common condition treated with diuretics is high blood pressure. The drugs reduce the amount of fluid in your blood vessels, and this helps lower your blood pressure.
Other conditions are also treated with diuretics. Congestive heart failure, for instance, keeps your heart from pumping blood effectively throughout your body. This leads to a buildup of fluids in your body, which is called edema. Diuretics can help reduce this fluid buildup.The three types of diuretic medications are called thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing diuretics. All of them make your body excrete more fluids as urine.Thiazides are the most commonly prescribed diuretics. They’re most often used to treat high blood pressure. These drugs not only decrease fluids, they also cause your blood vessels to relax.
Thiazides are sometimes taken with other medications used to lower blood pressure. Examples of thiazides include:Potassium-sparing diuretics reduce fluid levels in your body without causing you to lose potassium, an important nutrient.
The other types of diuretics cause you to lose potassium, which can lead to health problems such as arrhythmia. Potassium-sparing diuretics may be prescribed for people at risk of low potassium levels, such as those who take other medications that deplete potassium.
Potassium-sparing diuretics don’t reduce blood pressure as well as the other types of diuretics do. Therefore, your doctor may prescribe a potassium-sparing diuretic with another medication that also lowers blood pressure.Prescription diuretics can be helpful in treating serious conditions, such as heart failure, to less-pressing conditions, such as mild high blood pressure.